After a failure as a naval commander in 424 BC which led to a Spartan victory, Thucydides was exiled for twenty years in the Peloponnese. His History of the Peloponnesean War which traces the war down to 411 BC is a masterpiece of historiography and has placed him at the pinnacle of Greek historians. His work was the first that not only traced events, but analyzed them on the basis of moral and political reasoning.
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History of the Peloponnesean War
Note: An Asterisk (*) after an author´s name signifies that this is a Pseudonym