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Andrew Johnson

Author Code: AANJ

Born: Dec. 29, 1808 - Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Died: Jul. 31, 1875 - Elizabethtown, Tennessee, USA

Johnson never received formal schooling. He became a tailor's apprentice as a young boy, but ran away - eventually setting up his own shop in Greenville, Tennessee. Having received some reading skills in his time in Raleigh, Johnson began a period of self-education through reading and the tuition of his wife who taught him arithmetic, writing and other skills. In 1828, he organized the Working Man's party and was elected Alderman for Greenville. In 1830, he was elected mayor and subsequently was elected to the state legislature. Gaining a reputation as an excellent public orator, Johnson was elected to the U.S. Congress in 1843 where he continued to serve for ten years. In 1853, he became Governor of Tennessee, a position he held until his election to the U.S. Senate in 1857. During the heated debates of 1860 in Tennessee for and against secession, Johnson came out firmly in favour of remaining with the Union. In 1862, President Lincoln appointed Johnson Military Governor of the state. By the summer of 1863, the entire state had been brought under Federal military control. Although a Democrat, Johnson was nominated as Lincoln's running mate for vice-president in the 1864 elections. Johnson became the 17th President when Lincoln was assassinated in 1865. Becoming President at one of the country's most difficult times, Johnson initiated the Reconstruction policies that included general amnesties and removing trade restrictions with the South. Soon Johnson and Congress were in dispute on a number of issues. Johnson vetoed the first Civil Rights bill, but Congress passed it through anyway and a number of Johnson's cabinet resigned their offices. Johnson continually used his power of veto to delay a number of bills and removed Stanton as Secretary of War and appointed General Grant in his stead. Congress objected, stating that their approval for such a move was required and Stanton was re-instated. Johnson again removed him and appointed General Thomas. Declaring that the President had exceeded his powers, Congress voted for impeachment on the grounds of high crimes and misdemeanors. In May of 1868, Congress voted 35 to 19 for guilty, but Johnson was acquitted since a two-thirds majority was required for conviction. Johnson subsequently issued a full pardon to all Southerners who took part in the Rebellion. He returned to his Greenville home in 1869. He was again a candidate for the Senate in 1870 and 1872, but was defeated on both occasions. Finally, in 1875, he was returned to the Senate, but suffered a stroke soon after taking office and died that summer.

eBook Code Title/Sub-Title Pub. Yr Pages File Size Type Download Format Find Printed Copy
AANJ001 Inaugural & Annual Addresses
  First Annual Address - 1865
  Second Annual Address - 1866
  Third Annual Address - 1867
  Fourth Annual Address - 1868
  Inaugural Address - 1865
1865-1868 50 413k eBook Download PDF - 'Inaugural & Annual Addresses' (AANJ001) Find a printed copy of Inaugural & Annual Addresses by Andrew Johnson at AbeBooks
AANJ002 Proclamation of Amnesty 1865 3 149k Document Download PDF - 'Proclamation of Amnesty' (AANJ002)

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