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Benito Mussolini

Author Code: TBMX

Born: Jul. 29, 1883 - Covia di Predappio, Italy

Died: Apr. 28, 1945 - Giulino di Messegra, Italy

Mussolini qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901 and in 1902 emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find work he was expelled and returned to Italy where he completed his military service. In 1908, he joined the staff of a newspaper in Trento, Austria. Again expelled, he returned to Italy and became the editor of the Socialist newspaper La Lotta di Classe (The Class Struggle). A follower of Marxian ideals initially, Mussolini was also influenced by the writings of Nietzsche, Blanqui and Sorel. He was arrested in 1911 for distributing pacifist propaganda during Italy's conflict with Turkey. On his release he moved to Milan and became editor of the Socialist newspaper Avanti. At the outbreak of war in 1914, Mussolini began to break with the Socialists and move to the right. He founded the Il Popolo d'Italia newspaper and established his pro-war group, Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria. By 1919 he had organised the Fasci de Combattimento as a political force. Failing to win a parliamentary post in 1919, Mussolini was elected as a right-wing member in 1921. He formed armed militia to harass and terrorize the opposition, especially his former Socialist colleagues. When the government collapsed in 1922, the king asked Mussolini to form a new government. By 1925, Mussolini had achieved dictatorial powers and his propaganda machine had completely won over the population. In 1929, he was instrumental in convincing the Vatican to sign a Concordat which recognized the Italian state. In 1935, he helped to establish an anti-Hitler front in defence of an independent Austria, but the condemnation by the League of Nations of his invasion of Abyssinia led to his seeking an alliance with the Nazis in Germany. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-39, he gave his full support to Franco. In May 1939 Mussolini signed the Pact of Steel with Hitler. He followed Hitler's racial policies and began persecuting the Jews in Italy. He occupied Albania in April, 1939. Although completely unprepared for a large war, he nevertheless declared war after the fall of France in June 1940. In October, 1940 he attacked Greece without much success and, when the Allies landed in Sicily in 1943, the king and most of Mussolini's Fascist Council members turned against him and had him arrested. He was rescued by German paratroopers some months later and escaped to Northern Italy where he set up a Fascist state under the protection of the Germans. He took revenge on many of his former Fascist colleagues, executing many including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. In April, 1945, when the Germans in Italy surrendered, he attempted to flee to Swizterland, but was caught, together with his mistress Clara Petacci, by partisans and both were executed. Mussolini's only literary output was the novel The Cardinal's Mistress (1908). The vast majority of his writing was concerned with political movement and socialist and fascist ideology. The most well-known of these works include his Doctrine of Fascism (1919) and the Principles of Fascism (1932).

eBook Code Title/Sub-Title Pub. Yr Pages File Size Type Download Format Find Printed Copy
TBMX001 The Doctrine of Fascism 1919 14 160k eBook Download PDF - 'The Doctrine of Fascism' (TBMX001) Find a printed copy of The Doctrine of Fascism by Benito Mussolini at AbeBooks
TBMX003 Letter to Hitler - 1 1940 2 136k Document Download PDF - 'Letter to Hitler - 1' (TBMX003)
TBMX007 Letter to Hitler - 2 1941 3 151k Document Download PDF - 'Letter to Hitler - 2' (TBMX007)
TBMX008 Letter to Hitler - 3 1941 3 148k Document Download PDF - 'Letter to Hitler - 3' (TBMX008)
TBMX009 Letter to Hitler - 4 - Re. Russia 1941 2 130k Document Download PDF - 'Letter to Hitler - 4 - Re. Russia' (TBMX009)
TBMX010 Letter to Hitler - 5 1941 6 160k Document Download PDF - 'Letter to Hitler - 5' (TBMX010)
TBMX002 The Principles of Fascism 1932 14 183k eBook Download PDF - 'The Principles of Fascism' (TBMX002) Find a printed copy of The Principles of Fascism by Benito Mussolini at AbeBooks
TBMX005 Selected Parliamentary Speeches - 1921
  The Attitude of Facismo Towards Communism and Socialism
  The Attitude of Facismo Towards the Popular Party. The Vatican and Social Democracy
  D'Annunzio and Fiume
  Facismo and the New Provinces
  Italy, Sionism, and the English Mandate in Palestine
  The Question of Montenegro's Independence
1921 12 186k eBook Download PDF - 'Selected Parliamentary Speeches - 1921' (TBMX005) Find a printed copy of Selected Parliamentary Speeches - 1921 by Benito Mussolini at AbeBooks
TBMX006 Selected Speeches - 1922
  "Conscientious General Diagnosis of the Conditions of the Country and its Foreign Policy"
  The Fascista Dawning of New Italy
  The Foreign Policy of the Fascista Government
  "I Remain the Head of Fascismo, Although the Head of the Italian Government"
  "The Moment Has Arrived When the Arrow must Leave the Bow or the Cord Will Break."
  A New Cromwell in the Parliament
  "The Piave and Vittorio Veneto Mark the Beginning of New Italy"
  The Policy of Fascismo for Italy: Economy, Work and Discipline
1922 24 234k eBook Download PDF - 'Selected Speeches - 1922' (TBMX006) Find a printed copy of Selected Speeches - 1922 by Benito Mussolini at AbeBooks
TBMX004 Speech to the Chamber of Fasci & Corporations 1942 10 159k eBook Download PDF - 'Speech to the Chamber of Fasci & Corporations' (TBMX004) Find a printed copy of Speech to the Chamber of Fasci & Corporations by Benito Mussolini at AbeBooks

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